Friday , 21 June 2024

Farming Pompano

Why POMPANO?

Pompano is a good candidate for aquaculture because it can easily adapt to captive conditions in ponds and cages. This species can also readily accept formulated feed (pellet) and can be grown at lower salinity (15–18 ppt). It is a pelagic fish that is easy to domesticate in marine and brackishwater environments.

How to culture POMPANO?

Injection of hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

Spawning

  • Select mature pompano. The recommended sex ratio is 1 female:2 male.
  • Inject mature fish with the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) at a dosage of 1,000 international units (IU) per kilogram of fish. Injection is done twice in two days: the first in the morning of the first day at 500 IU per kg of fish and the second dose on the next day at about the same time.
  • After each injection, place the spawners in the spawning tank/cage that has a double net layer. Ovulation will take place 36–38 hours after the first injection. The eggs are released late at night or early in the morning (12:00 midnight to 4:00 a.m.). The size of the spawned egg is 0.8–0.85 mm.

Larval Rearing

A 60-day post-hatching fry ready for disposal to the nursery

The ideal tank size for larval rearing of pompano is 5 tons for easy management.

  • Prepare and fill half of the total tank volume with filtered seawater a day before the stocking.
  • Stock newly-hatched larvae in the larval rearing tank (LRT) late in the afternoon at a density of 10 newly-hatched larvae per liter.
  • Provide gentle aeration of 1-5 L per minute.
  • Add the microalgae Nanochlorum to the LRT at 300,000 cells per milliliter starting Day 1. Rotifers, copepods, and Artemia sp. are the natural food that can be fed to the pompano larvae/fry.
  • Practice co-feeding when changing sizes and type of food fed to the larvae/fry for 3–5 days.
  • Wean to larval diet at Day 26 and natural food is gradually withdrawn for 5–7 days.
  • Practice early morning (6–7 a.m.) and late afternoon (5–6 p.m.) feeding.

Nursery

Hatchery-produced fry need to undergo a nursery phase where they will be reared to become fingerlings fit for grow-out. 

Stocking of pompano fry in hapa nets
In brackishwater ponds
  • Pond bottom soil should be clay loam or sandy clay loam.
  • Stock 1.5-inch fry at a density of 150 fish per cubic meter in hapa nets (B-net, 5 m x 5 m x 1.5 m).
  • Feed fish with formulated diets at 10 % of average body weight (ABW) per day, gradually decreasing to 8 % of ABW. Spread out feeding to four times per day. The amount of feed per day shall be given in equal rations.
  • Lighting fixtures can be installed in the pond to concentrate small aquatic animals such as crustaceans and rotifers as supplemental food.
  • Harvest pompano when they reach the weight of 30 g.
In marine cages
  • Stock 1.5-inch fry at a density of 100 fish per cubic meter in 2 m x 2 m x 3 m nursery nets.
  • Artificial illumination can be installed in the floating cages to attract several zooplanktons which will serve as supplemental food.
  • Spread out feeding to four times per day. The amount of feed per day shall be given in equal rations.
  • Harvest pompano when they reach the weight of 60 g.

Grow-out

In brackishwater ponds
  • Stock 30-gram or bigger fingerlings to grow-out ponds at a stocking density of two fish per square meter.
  • Spread out feeding to three times per day. The amount of feed per day shall be given in equal rations.
  • Monitor water parameters such as dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH, temperature, and turbidity.
  • Rear fish for about 175 days to attain the harvestable weight of about 360 gram.
Sorting and transfer of pompano juveniles from nursery to grow-out cages
In marine cages
  • Stock fingerlings to grow-out nets at a stocking density of 45 fish per cubic meter.
  • Spread out feeding to three times per day. The amount of feed per day shall be given in equal rations.
  • Monitor fish growth by weighing 5 % of the total stocks every 30 days.
  • Monitor water parameters such as dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH, temperature, and turbidity.
  • Rear fish until they attain a body weight of 350 g (about 130 days of culture).

Is POMPANO profitable?

Technical information in pompano pond operations 

Item  
Project duration (year) 5
Culture period (days, nursery to grow-out) 210
Total pond area for stocking (m2) 10,000
Stocking density (pcs/m2) 2
Number of fingerlings stocked per crop (pcs) 20,000
Number of pompano at harvest per crop (pcs) 17,800
Survival rate (%) 89
Average body weight, final (g) 360
Average body weight, initial (g) 1
Total weight gain (kg) 6,390
Total feed consumed (kg) 12,432
Feed conversion ratio 1.94
Volume of harvest per crop 6,408
Number of crops/year 1
Volume of harvest per year 6,408
Farm-gate price per kg body weight (PHP) 350

Costs-and-returns (as of 2023)

Total variable cost per year (PHP) 1,262,107
Total fixed cost per year (PHP) 165,133
Net income per year (PHP) 815,561
Internal rate of return (%) 326.06
Return-on-investment (%) 300.17
Return on feed cost (%) 82.01
Payback period (years) 0.31
Break-even price (PHP/kg) 222.73
Break-even volume of production (kg/crop) 4,078

 

Technical information in pompano marine cage operations 

Item  
Project duration (year) 5
Culture period (days, nursery to grow-out) 220
Cage size (5 m x 5 m x 3 m) 75
Stocking density (pcs/m3) 45
Number of fingerlings stocked per unit (pc) 3,375
Number of pompano at harvest per crop per cage (pc) 3,038
Survival rate (%) 90
Average body weight, final (g) 350
Average body weight, initial (g) 1
Total weight gain (kg) 1,061
Total feed consumed (kg) 2,428
Feed conversion ratio 2.29
Volume of harvest per crop per cage (kg) 1,063
Number of cages 4
Volume of harvest from 4-cage operation per crop (kg) 4,253
Number of crops per year 1
Farm-gate price per kilogram (PHP) 350

Costs-and-returns in a 1-cage operation (as of 2023)

Total variable cost per year (PHP) 277,130
Total fixed cost per year (PHP) 24,246
Net income per year (PHP) 70,718
Internal rate of return (%) 152
Return-on-investment (%) 139.1
Payback period (years) 0.66
Break-even price (PHP/kg) 283
Break-even volume of production (kg/crop) 861

References:

Baliao, D. D., Mamauag, R. E. P., de la Peña, L. D., Somblingo, E. H., Regatalio, K. D. L., & Dayrit, R. (2023). Nursery and grow-out culture of snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii, Lacepede) in brackishwater ponds. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.

Mamauag, R. E. P., Baliao, D. D., de la Peña, L. D., Tesorero, M. B., Yap, M. P. R., & Dayrit, R. (2023). Nursery and grow-out culture of snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii, Lacepede) in marine cages. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.

Reyes, O. S., de Jesus-Ayson, E. G. T., Pedroso, F. L., & Cabanilla, M. I. C. (2014). Hatchery production of snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii Lacepede [Book]. Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. 

Madrones-Ladja, J., Opiña, N., Catacutan, M., Vallejo, E., & Cercado, V. (2012). Cage nursery of high-value fishes in brackishwater ponds: Seabass, grouper, snapper, pompano [Book]. Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.

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Get a copy of our publications!

AEM 74 Nursery and grow-out culture of snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii, Lacepede) in brackishwater ponds
DD Baliao et al (2023) 26 pp
This manual tackles a viable technology that can guide fish farmers in raising pompano in brackishwater ponds.
Each print copy costs US$5
Download here — File Size: 5.90 Mb
AEM 73 Nursery and grow-out culture of snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii, Lacepede) in marine cages
REP Mamauag et al (2023) 34 pp
This manual includes culture methods and good practices that are the product of research done at SEAFDEC/AQD.
Each print copy costs US$6
Download here — File Size: 10.13 Mb
AEM 56 hatchery production of snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii lacepede
Ofelia Reyes et Al (2014) 26 pp
A 26-page extension manual describing the biology, broodstock acquisition & management, larval rearing, harvest & transport and prevention of diseases & parasites in hatchery production of pompano.
Each copy costs US$5
AEM 54 Cage nursery of high-value fishes in brackishwater ponds ( sea bass, grouper, snapper, pompano) (2012) 24 pp
Jocelyn Madrones-Ladja et al 
This extension manual describes nursery pond requirements, nursery rearing procedures, common diseases of young marine fish, and economic analysis of cage nursery as an enterprise separate from hatchery and grow-out culture.
Each copy costs US$5

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